This audit would assess the effectiveness of the Treasury and other entities in implementing the 2018 government response to the Black Economy Taskforce's 2017 report into the black economy. The government accepted or partly accepted the majority of the 62 recommendations and 13 supplementary recommendations that apply across government.

As part of the 2018–19 Budget, the government announced a range of Black Economy Package measures, including further expansion of taxable payments reporting, combatting illicit tobacco, introducing an economy-wide cash payment limit of $10,000, new and enhanced ATO enforcement, removing tax deductibility of noncompliant payments, consulting on a new regulatory framework for Australian Business Numbers and changes to government procurement requirements to incentivise tax compliance in supply chains, and increasing the ability of enforcement agencies to detect and disrupt black economy participants.