This audit would assess the effectiveness of the administration of the research and development (R&D) tax incentive by the Department of Industry, Science, Energy and Resources and the Australian Taxation Office, focusing on the adequacy of the program’s assurance framework to support the tax benefits provided. The R&D tax incentive replaced the R&D tax concession from 1 July 2011 and aims to boost competitiveness and productivity across the Australian economy by encouraging industry to conduct R&D that might not otherwise be undertaken.