Portfolio overview

The objective of the Foreign Affairs and Trade portfolio is to advance Australia’s security and prosperity in a contested and competitive world, as supported by the implementation of the 2017 Foreign Policy White Paper.

The Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) is the lead entity in the portfolio and is responsible for providing foreign, trade and development policy advice, leading the Australian Government’s international efforts to shape the regional and international environment, and supporting the welfare of Australians overseas. Further information is available from the department’s website at dfat.gov.au.

In addition to DFAT, there are five portfolio entities that are responsible for delivering programs to strengthen Australia’s security, promote trade and investment, share Australia’s agricultural research expertise with developing countries, and grow the Australian tourism industry.

In the 2021–22 Portfolio Budget Statements (PBS) for the Foreign Affairs and Trade portfolio, the aggregated budgeted expenses for 2021–22 total $7.72 billion. The PBS contains budgets for those entities in the general government sector (GGS) that receive appropriations directly or indirectly through the annual appropriation Acts.

The level of budgeted departmental and administered expenses and the average staffing level for entities in the GGS within this portfolio are shown in Figure 1. DFAT represents the largest proportion of the portfolio’s expenses, and of this, administered expenses are the most material component, representing 61 per cent of the entire portfolio’s expenses.

Figure 1: Foreign Affairs and Trade portfolio – total expenses and average staffing level by entity

Source: ANAO analysis of 2021–22 PBS.

Audit focus

In determining the 2021–22 audit work program, the ANAO considers prior-year audit and other review findings and what these indicate about portfolio risks and areas for improvement. The ANAO also considers emerging risks from new investments, reforms or changes in the operating environment.

The portfolio’s risks predominantly relate to governance, specifically the need for oversight, compliance and fraud controls, value-for-money frameworks and transparency of performance. These risks are increased by the portfolio’s decentralised operations in often volatile environments, particularly in the areas of personnel, property, information security, and fraud and compliance control. In an environment affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, there are additional risks relating to trade restrictions, international development assistance and intelligence sharing, overseas-based staff, and repatriation of Australians located overseas.

Specific risks in the Foreign Affairs and Trade portfolio relate to governance and financial management.


Emerging risks in the portfolio derive partly from the challenges outlined in the 2017 Foreign Policy White Paper, which discusses shifts in the balance of power between nation states, including in the Indo-Pacific region, and increasing interconnections between domestic and international security. Clarity and coherence in DFAT’s policymaking and governance arrangements are critical in managing related risks, including maximising the benefits from diplomatic, intelligence and development efforts in the region.

One of the priorities of the Foreign Policy White Paper is increased engagement in the Pacific. In 2019, the government established the Australian Infrastructure Financing Facility for the Pacific, which provides aid grant funding and long-term loans to Pacific nations to support infrastructure development. These investments will require strong contract, project, performance and risk management, as well as transparency of value for money, impact and results against objectives.

International interest in the work of DFAT and the information it holds results in a heightened need for cyber resilience.

DFAT manages a global workforce, some working in volatile environments and all dealing with the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. DFAT also provides consular and crisis response for Australians living and travelling internationally. The audit of DFAT’s delivery of overseas security highlighted risks for DFAT personnel and property in not undertaking comprehensive planning, not achieving full implementation of all security measures, and not complying with delivery of required training for staff.

Recent audit work has identified the need for improvement in the portfolio’s reporting of performance to enhance transparency of, and accountability for, progress in achieving entity purposes.

Financial management

DFAT has diverse and widely distributed operating environments. In this context, strong financial management, particularly in relation to controls around payments of international development assistance, are essential to address fraud risks and inconsistent processes across different locations.

DFAT manages a significant overseas property portfolio and the valuation of these assets is highly sensitive to changes in the underlying assumptions.

Financial statement audits


Entities within the Foreign Affairs and Trade portfolio, and the risk profile of each entity, are shown in Table 1.

Table 1: Foreign Affairs and Trade portfolio entities and risk profile


Type of entity

Risk of material misstatement

Number of higher risks

Number of moderate risks

Material entities 

Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade





Export Finance Australia





Non-material entities 

Australian Trade and Investment Commission





Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research



Australian Secret Intelligence Service



Tourism Australia




Material entities

Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade

The Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) supports Australia’s foreign, trade and investment, development and international security policy priorities. DFAT is the lead agency managing Australia’s international presence and will lead efforts to maximise Australia’s security and prosperity through implementation of the 2017 Foreign Policy White Paper.

DFAT’s total budgeted expenses for 2021–22 are just over $6.29 billion, with 55 per cent of these expenses attributable to payments in relation to international development assistance (Figure 2).

Figure 2: Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade’s total budgeted expenses by category ($’000)


Source: ANAO analysis of 2021–22 PBS.

There are three key risks for DFAT’s 2020–21 financial statements that the ANAO has highlighted for specific audit coverage, including two that the ANAO considers potential key audit matters (KAMs).

  • The valuation of the Australian Government’s significant overseas property portfolio, due to the sensitivities in changes to the assumptions supporting these valuations. (KAM – Valuation of overseas property)
  • The accuracy of financial information associated with overseas post operations, which contributes to a number of balances within DFAT’s financial statements and relies on the consistent application of DFAT’s governance framework across a geographically diverse environment. This includes the provision of international development assistance, the diverse range of aid program agreements with varying performance assessment obligations, and the significant components of the program that are paid through third-party providers. (KAM – Accuracy and completeness of international development assistance)
  • The accuracy of revenue, including revenue streams such as passport operations, where revenue is collected under contractual arrangements by a third party, and rental accommodation and other services provided to other government entities at overseas posts, calculated using an activity-based costing model. The model is supported by a significant volume of information related to staffing and floor-space requirements provided in annual returns submitted by each post.

Export Finance Australia

From 1 July 2019, the Export Finance and Insurance Corporation – the government’s export credit agency – began trading under the name of Export Finance Australia. It provides financial expertise and solutions to drive sustainable growth that benefits Australia and its partners. Through loans, guarantees, bonds and insurance options, Export Finance Australia enables small to medium-sized enterprises, large corporates and governments to take on export-related opportunities, win business, grow internationally and achieve export success.

In April 2019, changes to the Export Finance and Insurance Corporation Act 1991 provided a $1 billion increase in callable capital and a new overseas infrastructure financing power. This enabled Export Finance Australia to both finance more and larger projects, and expand its capabilities to regional infrastructure projects that have a broad national benefit for Australia, including for Australian businesses.

Export Finance Australia’s total actual expenses for 2019–20 were $160.7 million, with 83 per cent of these expenses attributable to interest expenses, as shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3: Export Finance Australia’s total actual expenses by category ($’000)


Source: ANAO analysis of Export Finance Australia’s 2019–20 annual report.

There are three key risks for Export Finance Australia’s 2020–21 financial statements.

  • The valuation and classification of complex financial instruments involving structured bonds, interest rate swaps and cross-currency swaps that are significant in value.
  • The valuation and impairment of loans, guarantees, and available-for-sale investments, due to the judgements and estimates applied to calculate the balances.
  • The recognition of interest income earned on interest-bearing financial assets, due to the significant balance of this account.