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Indigenous Employment in Government Service Delivery
The audit objective was to assess the effectiveness of DEEWR’s and FaHCSIA’s administration of the Australian Government’s responsibilities under Element 1 of the National Partnership Agreement on Indigenous Economic Participation (including the NT Jobs Package).
1. In the more than four decades since the 1967 Referendum,1 successive Australian governments have developed and funded policies and programs designed to improve the socio-economic status of Indigenous Australians, and overcome a long history of poverty and marginalisation. Despite these efforts, there has been only modest improvement in some areas, and many Indigenous Australians continue to experience high levels of disadvantage in living standards, life expectancy, education, health and employment.
2. The Council of Australian Governments’ (COAG) National Indigenous Reform Agreement provides the current framework for the Commonwealth, state and territory governments to work together with Indigenous Australians and the broader community to achieve the target of ‘Closing the Gap’ in Indigenous disadvantage.2 The Closing the Gap strategy includes six targets relating to Indigenous life expectancy, health, education and employment, which need to be in place in order to comprehensively address the current level of disadvantage.
3. In 2010, 18 per cent of Indigenous Australians were unemployed, compared to 5 per cent of non-Indigenous Australians.3 At the same time, the labour force participation rate of Indigenous Australians was 56 per cent, over 10 per cent lower than that of non-Indigenous Australians.4 It is recognised that reducing unemployment and increasing the participation of Indigenous Australians in the labour market are necessary conditions for overcoming the persistent economic and social disadvantage experienced by Indigenous Australians.5 To align with this, one of the key objectives outlined in the National Indigenous Reform Agreement is to halve the gap in employment outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians within a decade.6
The National Partnership Agreement on Indigenous Economic Participation
4. Underpinning the Closing the Gap targets outlined in the National Indigenous Reform Agreement are other National Agreements which contain Indigenous specific outcomes, and a series of National Partnership Agreements. One such agreement is the National Partnership Agreement on Indigenous Economic Participation, which was agreed to by COAG on 29 November 2008.
5. The National Partnership Agreement on Indigenous Economic Participation is designed to contribute to the Closing the Gap targets and involves complementary investment and effort by the Commonwealth, states and territories to significantly improve opportunities for Indigenous Australians to engage in private and public sector jobs through four elements:
- Element 1: creating real, sustainable employment in areas of government service delivery that have previously relied on subsidisation through the Community Development Employment Projects (CDEP) program;
- Element 2: strengthening current government procurement policies to maximise Indigenous employment;
- Element 3: incorporating Indigenous workforce strategies into all major COAG reforms, thereby contributing to the Closing the Gap targets; and
- Element 4: reviewing all public sector Indigenous employment and career development strategies to increase employment to reflect population share by 2015.7
6. The focus of this audit was Element 1 of the National Partnership Agreement on Indigenous Economic Participation.
The Community Development Employment Projects program
7. Established in 1977, CDEP is an Australian Government program that provides Indigenous Australians with participation opportunities in activities aimed at improving their employability and assisting them to move into outside, mainstream employment.8 Since 2006, CDEP has undergone a series of reforms, and various Australian Government initiatives have sought to create ongoing employment from CDEP activities, particularly those that previously subsidised government service provision. Under the 2007 Northern Territory Emergency Response (NTER), the policy focus for CDEP changed to moving unemployed Indigenous Australians in the Northern Territory on to mainstream income support payments with participation requirements. From 1 July 2009, CDEP no longer operates in urban and regional locations where the economy is well established. However, the CDEP program still operates in some remote communities, with a focus on building the skills of participants to find jobs outside of CDEP.9
8. The reforms to the CDEP program link to the Australian Government’s commitment to provide greater support for Indigenous Australians to find sustainable employment, as well as with the broader aims outlined in the Closing the Gap strategy, particularly the target of halving the gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous employment within a decade.
The National Jobs Creation Package and the Northern Territory Jobs Package
9. The core component of Element 1 of the National Partnership Agreement on Indigenous Economic Participation is the National Jobs Creation Package (NJCP). This measure was aimed at creating around 200010 sustainable11 jobs from appropriate CDEP activities that were supporting the delivery of government services.
10. Prior to the NJCP, a similar measure, specific to the Northern Territory, had been agreed to by COAG. The Northern Territory Jobs Package (NT Jobs Package) was a component of the NTER and also aimed to generate around 2000 jobs, from CDEP activities, to support the delivery of government services.
11. The packages targeted jobs at CDEP participants engaged in activities that delivered essential services to Indigenous communities. From the jobs created, Indigenous Australians employed in the positions were expected to receive the full benefits of employment including wages, leave, superannuation, and professional development. Given the common intent of the jobs packages to create sustainable, properly paid employment opportunities for Indigenous Australians, both packages have been examined as part of the audit.
12. The Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (DEEWR) and the Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs (FaHCSIA) were the lead departments for both the NJCP and NT Jobs Package. DEEWR had overall responsibility for policy, monitoring and coordination of the packages, while FaHCSIA was responsible for managing the funding arrangements, including distributing funding to departments and ensuring that funds were appropriately acquitted.
13. Through the NJCP and NT Jobs Package, jobs were created from CDEP activities that had supported the delivery of Australian Government programs across various employment sectors. The jobs were identified and created through a number programs administered by:
- DEEWR—education support and childcare;
- Department of Health and Ageing (DoHA)—aged care;
- the then Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA)—Indigenous rangers and arts including art centre support, broadcasting, language and culture;12
- Attorney-General’s Department (AGD)—night patrols; and
- FaHCSIA—municipal services.
Audit objective, criteria and scope
14. The audit objective was to assess the effectiveness of DEEWR’s and FaHCSIA’s administration of the Australian Government’s responsibilities under Element 1 of the National Partnership Agreement on Indigenous Economic Participation (including the NT Jobs Package).
15. Underpinning the audit objective, the high-level audit criteria were:
- DEEWR and FaHCSIA established arrangements and ongoing procedures to support the achievement of the outputs outlined in Element 1 of the National Partnership Agreement on Indigenous Economic Participation;
- DEEWR, DoHA, Environment and the Office for the Arts identified, selected and funded the jobs created under Element 1 of the National Partnership Agreement on Indigenous Economic Participation;
- DEEWR, DoHA, Environment and the Office for the Arts developed and/or monitored transitional strategies in communities, including
pre- and post-employment support strategies for CDEP participants who gained jobs; and
- DEEWR and FaHCSIA monitored and reported on the packages, and used performance information to inform decision-making.
16. As part of the audit scope, the ANAO identified specific Australian Government programs and locations involved in the NJCP and NT Jobs Package, and used them as the basis for case studies. This analysis concentrated on jobs created in the arts, culture, broadcasting, Indigenous rangers, aged care and education support sectors.
17. The audit scope did not include:
- an examination of the night patrol positions administered by AGD as they have previously been the subject of an ANAO audit;13
- the identification and creation of jobs by state and territory governments; and
- job creation in the Torres Strait Islands.14
18. Improving the level of economic participation has been identified as one of the key building blocks required to improve outcomes for Indigenous Australians. In 2009, the unemployment rate for Indigenous Australians was over three times that of non-Indigenous Australians, and at 18 per cent, was trending upward after remaining steady at approximately 14 per cent between 2006 and 2008.15 Within this context, halving the gap in employment outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians within a decade is one of six key objectives sought by the National Indigenous Reform Agreement.
19. One of the national approaches under the National Indigenous Reform Agreement is the National Partnership Agreement on Indigenous Economic Participation, which identifies four elements aimed at contributing towards the target of halving the gap in employment outcomes. Central to Element 1 is the National Jobs Creation Package (NJCP), which aimed to create around 200016 sustainable jobs across Australia in employment areas previously subsidised through Community Development Employment Projects (CDEP) activities. In addition to the NJCP, an earlier jobs package was implemented in the Northern Territory (NT Jobs Package) as part of the Northern Territory Emergency Response. The NT Jobs Package was established on substantially similar terms to the NJCP.
20. In the context of delivering the jobs packages, the Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (DEEWR) and the Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs provided effective coordination and direction, guided by the high-level policy parameters set by the Australian Government, which contributed to the jobs packages being implemented within relatively short timeframes. More broadly, the role played by departments in identifying positions, engaging service providers, and managing ongoing relationships was also integral to the successful roll-out of the packages and Indigenous Australians being placed in the jobs. DEEWR, the Department of Health and Ageing (DoHA), the Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (Environment) and the Office for the Arts effectively identified, selected and funded the jobs created under the packages. In particular, all departments linked the allocation of jobs to existing program funding from the Australian Government. By linking the funding to existing programs there was limited interruption to the delivery of Australian government-related services when CDEP activities were removed.
21. At the Australian Government level, 1235 jobs were created under the NJCP and 1755 jobs were created under the NT Jobs Package. These results were consistent with the objectives of the NJCP and NT Jobs Package—the jobs were created in areas of Australian government service delivery that had previously relied on labour subsidised through CDEP; and the jobs packages created positions for Indigenous Australians which included the full benefits of employment.17 Notwithstanding the creation of the jobs, there are a range of conditions (including those outlined in paragraph 26) that will need to be monitored in order to determine the long-term impact of the jobs and their contribution to improving the level of economic participation by Indigenous Australians.
22. The majority of jobs under the NJCP and NT Jobs Package were created through funding arrangements with small, non-government, Indigenous community organisations. These organisations were responsible for recruiting suitable employees and they have been effective in employing Indigenous Australians as per the intent of the NJCP and NT Jobs Package.
23. Training provided through the NJCP and NT Jobs Package allowed employees to gain general and job-specific skills. For both jobs packages there was an assumption that training and professional development would lead to career mobility beyond the entry-level positions that were created. The jobs, however, were created in regional and remote communities that often have a limited economic base and limited opportunities for Indigenous Australians to pursue career development and alternative jobs outside of those created through the job packages. In this respect, the jobs would generally not exist without Australian Government support, and service providers raised concerns that the funding, in most cases, does not provide scope to advance employees to higher duties or to recognise the skills gained through the jobs.
24. The transition of CDEP activities into jobs with mainstream employment conditions placed an administrative burden on service providers that needed to support staff through new workplace expectations and training. From the service provider perspective, there remains a gap in the information available on how they can link to other Australian Government employment programs and the experiences of other organisations. DEEWR had previously identified this issue and developed options to better coordinate and integrate the jobs packages with other forms of Australian Government support. Some information has been made available; however, DEEWR did not implement its identified options as a suite of targeted measures. To better support long-term employment outcomes for Indigenous Australians in these jobs, there remains a need for DEEWR and departments to provide information to employers and employees which assists them to connect to related services and opportunities (refer Recommendation No.1).
25. Performance of the jobs packages is monitored and reported at a
whole-of-government level by DEEWR. The indicators developed measure the number of jobs created and filled, as per the high-level objective outlined in the National Partnership Agreement on Indigenous Economic Participation. While the indicators are useful in measuring the short-term goal of creating jobs from CDEP activities, they do not provide a direct basis for measuring the sustainability of the jobs or their long-term impact on Indigenous employment outcomes.
26. Recognising that the NJCP and NT Jobs Package are, together, only one component of a broader strategy, attention should still be given to periodically assessing the necessary conditions for the ongoing success of the packages. These include:
- the jobs being maintained and filled by Indigenous Australians, with appropriate wages and conditions being provided;
- the provision of ongoing funding with appropriate increases to take account of up-skilling through on-the-job experience and training;
- an assessment of retention levels to determine the impact on Indigenous employment outcomes; and
- continued pre- and post-employment support to employers and employees as necessary.
27. DEEWR informed the ANAO that these areas will be covered through usual departmental risk management arrangements. Nevertheless, in view of the importance of these factors to the longer-term success of the jobs packages, it would be prudent for these to be considered as part of the planned review of the National Partnership Agreement on Indigenous Economic Participation and in ongoing reporting to COAG.
Planning, Coordinating and Funding the Jobs Packages (Chapter 2)
28. The NT Jobs Package was developed as part of the NTER and was subject to demanding time pressures during the rollout. To assist in meeting the Australian Government’s expectations, DEEWR provided some high-level guidance to departments and relied on an implementation plan developed for a similar 2007 Budget measure—Building An Indigenous Workforce in Government Service Delivery.
29. DEEWR’s planning arrangements for the NJCP included the development of a project implementation plan and information pack. The framework also incorporated the lessons from the NT Jobs Package and addressed a number of elements necessary for successfully implementing cross-departmental initiatives, including specifying roles and responsibilities and identifying high-level implementation risks.
30. DEEWR provided broad guidance to departments on the process for implementing the packages, but did not develop specific program guidelines. Instead, there was a reliance on departments to determine and implement their own internal management arrangements for identifying jobs and engaging service providers, based on their previous experience. This provided flexibility for departments to tailor the implementation to their respective programs and job sectors.
31. FaHCSIA established and managed the special accounts18 used for the NT Jobs Package and NJCP in a manner consistent with Australian Government policy requirements. Establishing a central pool of funds provided flexibility to fund programs during the roll–out, and to re-allocate unspent funding allocations between programs to match demand. Once the jobs had been bedded down within the programs administered by departments, a special account was no longer required. Therefore, from 2010–11, the special account was abolished and departments began receiving direct Budget appropriations.
Identifying the Jobs (Chapter 3)
32. For both the NT Jobs Package and the NJCP, there was a three-stage approach to identifying CDEP activities supporting the delivery of government services that could form the basis of sustainable jobs. For the purposes of determining the aggregate funding requirements, departments provided an initial estimate of job numbers. DEEWR, for the NT Jobs Package, and FaHCSIA, for the NJCP, then undertook jobs audits to provide more detailed information on existing CDEP activities and potential job numbers. Finally, the departments responsible for the programs were required to use the jobs audit information, and other resources, to verify job numbers and enter into agreements with service providers.
33. Data collected for the NT Jobs Package through a departmental audit of CDEP jobs helped create a map of the services in the Northern Territory being supported by CDEP activities. For the NJCP, departments identified some issues/gaps in the information provided in the jobs audit. These issues/gaps contributed to a greater administrative pressure on departments as they sought to create the jobs by 1 July 2009.
34. The job identification process placed an administrative burden on the organisations delivering CDEP.19 For example, some organisations had to respond to multiple requests for similar information from various departments. The process also created a duplication of effort by Australian Government departments. While the three-stage approach allowed the job identification processes to be undertaken incrementally, it also resulted in similar activities been carried out at each stage of the process. As both jobs packages were established through whole-of-government arrangements, a collaborative approach in the jobs identification process could have improved administrative efficiencies and reduced the burden for departments and CDEP organisations.20
35. In identifying and creating jobs, DEEWR, DoHA, and the Office for the Arts made a direct offer of funding to existing service providers, while Environment conducted an open and competitive grants process. All of the departments linked the allocation of jobs to existing Australian Government programs they were administering, and this limited the interruption to services when CDEP positions were removed.
Developing, Executing and Monitoring the Funding Agreements (Chapter 4)
36. Under the NT Jobs Package and NJCP, jobs were created in multiple program areas. Each of the departments was responsible for developing their own funding agreements, which resulted in a level of variation in the agreements. This allowed a degree of flexibility for each department to develop and manage funding agreements to suit their particular job stream. Departments developed and executed funding agreements which established appropriate terms, conditions and reporting requirements to reflect the nature of the jobs and service providers being funded.
37. The primary means of monitoring service providers is through the financial and performance reporting deliverables specified in the funding agreements. The information collected, however, is primarily quantitative (number of jobs created and filled), and provides limited information on the long-term effectiveness or impact of the jobs. The information collected is also used for compliance monitoring purposes, and generally the analytical focus has been on individual service providers. One department, however, also analyses the information at the program level to determine if the jobs are adequately supporting the program objectives. The practice of analysing performance information at the program level provides useful insights such as trends in job vacancies, training and recruitment outcomes. Such analysis, if undertaken more broadly by departments, would provide information to inform future program and funding agreement development.
Employing Indigenous Australians in the Jobs (Chapter 5)
38. As per the intent of the NT Jobs Package and NJCP, the recruitment methods used by service providers were effective in placing Indigenous Australians in the jobs created. Feedback from the service providers indicated that over 80 per cent of the positions were filled by people previously on CDEP, and all jobs were filled by Indigenous Australians.
39. The transition from CDEP activities to mainstream employment arrangements brought new obligations and responsibilities for employees. Based on the experience with the NT Jobs Package, it was recognised that Indigenous Australians transitioning into the jobs created under the NJCP would require additional support. In that respect, a key issue identified through the NT Jobs Package was a lack of information on post-CDEP transition support for new employees and employers. To address this concern, one of the key deliverables for the NJCP was the development of an induction package to assist employers. DEEWR advised that it did not complete the induction package due to competing work pressures. Instead, departments and service providers were responsible for developing pre- and post-employment support. DEEWR’s state offices were also a resource that could be used to identify programs to support the recruitment and retention of Indigenous Australians in the jobs.
40. The degree to which the jobs packages will achieve long-term employment outcomes for Indigenous Australians is reliant on effective support being provided to employees to build their skills and confidence in the workplace. Service providers will have a central role in providing direct support in these areas. Notwithstanding the arrangements established, there remains an ongoing role for departments to provide information in a way that reaches employers and employees, and assists them to connect to related services and opportunities.
41. Funding for the jobs packages included a provision for training of employees. The training aspects of the jobs packages were viewed as being valuable in assisting Indigenous Australians to gain general and job-specific skills. The funding agreements provided flexibility for employers to tailor the training according to individual needs and job requirements. Training was delivered in a range of formats depending on factors including the training needs of the organisation and the individual employees; the location of the organisation; and the level of funding provided.
42. For both jobs packages there was an assumption that the professional development provided through the jobs would lead to career mobility beyond the entry-level positions. However, the limited economic base in regional and remote communities, where a majority of the jobs were created, means that employment opportunities are not always available for people who have gained experience/skills to transition to the broader workforce. While this was acknowledged during the planning for both the NT Jobs Package and the NJCP, neither jobs package presented a targeted response to the issue. Service providers also raised concerns that funding under the initiatives does not provide scope to advance employees to higher duties or recognise the skills obtained from the training component of the packages.
Monitoring and reporting on Element 1 of the National Partnership Agreement (Chapter 6)
43. Consistent with the objective for Element 1, the focus of reporting to COAG has been on the number of jobs created and filled. This information is useful in providing a basis to measure and report on the initial achievements of the packages and their contribution to the objectives of National Partnership Agreement on Indigenous Economic Participation. As indicated by DEEWR, the initial effectiveness of the packages is evident through the creation of the jobs, and the provision of ongoing funding assists in providing a solid basis for the sustainability of the jobs. While these are critical first steps, ultimately, it is the employment outcomes that will determine the long-term success of the job packages and their contribution to the high-level goals of the National Partnership Agreement on Indigenous Economic Participation and the National Indigenous Reform Agreement.
44. The development of the Indigenous Economic Development Strategy has the potential to provide support for the ongoing effectiveness of the jobs packages. The audit, however, identified a number of risks that have the potential to impact on the ongoing sustainability and effectiveness of the jobs packages if they are not managed. These include the jobs created being maintained (with appropriate employment conditions) and filled by Indigenous Australians; adequate levels of ongoing funding being provided; and the continuing need for pre- and post-employment support for employers and employees.
45. The ANAO considers that there would be value, as a part of the planned review of the National Partnership Agreement on Indigenous Economic Participation, for the jobs packages to be reviewed in the wider context of the long term Indigenous employment outcomes sought by the Australian Government. In particular, the review provides an opportunity for DEEWR and relevant stakeholders to pool expertise21 to assess the overall sustainability of the jobs, and provide advice to government on any necessary changes or refinements to support the long-term success of the packages.
Summary of agency response
46. DEEWR provided the following summary response to the audit report:
The Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (DEEWR) welcomes the ANAO’s finding that DEEWR and the Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs provided effective coordination and direction, guided by the high level policy parameters set by the Australian Government, which contributed to the jobs packages being implemented in relatively short timeframes.
The effectiveness of this measure is evidenced by the creation of almost 3000 jobs for Indigenous Australians and the increase in the ongoing base level funding for these services.
DEEWR notes that the ANAO’s findings primarily relate to the ongoing monitoring of a range of employment conditions to determine the long term impact of the jobs and their contribution to the overall level of economic participation by Indigenous Australians.
DEEWR accepts the ANAO’s recommendation, and recognises its relevance to continuous improvement in achieving long term employment outcomes for Indigenous Australians.
47. DEEWR’s full response to the audit is included at Appendix 1 of the report.
48. FaHCSIA provided the following response to the audit report:
FaHCSIA welcomes the ANAO audit report of Indigenous Employment in Government Service Delivery and notes the recommendation provides opportunities to build upon the success of the jobs packages.
49. DoHA provided the following response to the audit report:
The Department of Health and Ageing (DoHA) supports the audit of the implementation of Indigenous Employment in Government Service Delivery program undertaken by the ANAO and agrees to the recommendation.
50. Environment (DSEWPaC) provided the following response to the audit report:
The department welcomes the report and agrees with the recommendation. DSEWPaC will continue to promote the programs we deliver and raise awareness of other Australian Government support programs. The department is actively seeking to continuously improve how we communicate with Indigenous communities and will be developing Indigenous Engagement Guidelines and an Indigenous Interpreters policy.
Through reforms, DSEWPaC’s Working on Country program contracts directly with Indigenous organisations and a small number of non-Indigenous organisations who partner with Indigenous communities. The department purchases environmental services from these organisations who are best placed to deliver agreed on-ground outcomes. The investment provides real jobs for Indigenous people in the environment sector.
Since the roll-out of the reform, retention rates for Indigenous rangers employed under the Working on Country program remain high. For the
2009–2010 year a survey of ranger groups indicated that 86% of staff employed in the program remained in their job after 12 months.
Office for the Arts (PM&C)
51. Office for the Arts provided the following response to the audit report:
Office for the Arts (OFTA), Prime Minister and Cabinet Department, welcomes this report by the ANAO and will continue to consult and work with service providers to achieve long term employment outcomes for Indigenous Australians.
 On 27 May 1967, a Federal referendum was held. The referendum approved two amendments to the Commonwealth of Australian Constitution Act relating to Indigenous Australians. The constitutional amendments relating to section 51(xxvi) gave the Commonwealth Government the power to legislate in respect to Indigenous Australians.
 Council of Australian Governments (COAG) Reform Council National Indigenous Reform Agreement: Baseline performance report for 2008–09, p. xi, available from <http://www.coagreformcouncil.gov
.au/reports/docs/indigenous_reform_agreement_report_2008-09_vol1.pdf>, [accessed 22 August 2011].
 Australian Bureau of Statistics, Labour Force Characteristics of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, Estimates from the Labour Force Survey 2010, <http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/
Products/6287.0~2010~Chapter~Unemployment>, [accessed 22 August 2011].
 Council of Australian Governments (COAG) Reform Council, op.cit, p. 101.
 Council of Australian Governments (COAG), 2009, National Indigenous Reform Agreement, p. 8.
 Council of Australian Governments (COAG), 2009, National Partnership Agreement on Indigenous Economic Participation, paragraphs 15–29, pp. 5–7.
 The operation of CDEP and the reforms are discussed further in Appendix 3.
 Community Development Employment Projects (CDEP) program, available from <http://www.fahcsia.gov.au/sa/indigenous/progserv/families/cdep/Pages/default.aspx> [accessed 9 August 2011].
 1280 jobs in Australian Government service delivery and 720 jobs in state and local government service delivery.
 ‘Sustainable’ was not defined in the supporting documentation for the National Partnership Agreement on Indigenous Economic Participation or the NJCP. DEEWR advised that the provision of ongoing funding was the basis for the sustainability of the jobs.
 As per the Administrative Arrangements Order of 14 September 2010, responsibility for the Office for the Arts was transferred to the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet. DEWHA was also reconstituted as the Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities and retains responsibility for the rangers function. The report uses ‘Office for the Arts’ to refer to the management of the arts, broadcasting, languages and culture function, and ‘Environment’ to describe the rangers function.
 ANAO Audit Report No.21 2010–11, Northern Territory Night Patrols, available from <www.anao.gov.au>.
 Through the 2010–11 Commonwealth Budget, $44.3 million was provided over four years to align CDEP in the Torres Strait with reforms to the national CDEP program that commenced in other areas of Australia from 1 July 2009.
 Australian Bureau of Statistics, Labour Force Characteristics of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, Estimates from the Labour Force Survey 2009, pp. 7–13.
 1280 jobs in Australian Government service delivery and 720 jobs in state and local government service delivery.
 This included award wages, leave, superannuation and professional development.
 A special account is an appropriation mechanism that notionally sets aside an amount within the Consolidated Revenue Fund to be expended for specific purposes.
 CDEP service providers could be different from those organisations that employed Indigenous Australians in the jobs created under the NT Jobs Package and the NJCP. Refer Appendix 3.
 This has been examined previously in ANAO Audit Report No.10 2007–08, Whole-of-Government Indigenous Service Delivery Arrangements.
 One of the key findings from the Department of Finance and Deregulation’s Strategic Review of Indigenous Expenditure was that ‘whole-of-government coordination remains a major challenge… [and] significant efficiencies could be gained by pooling expertise and coordinating efforts’. p. 13, <http://www.finance.gov.au/foi/disclosure-log/2011/docs/foi_10-27_strategic_review_indigenous_expenditure.pdf> [accessed on 22 August 2011].